Three scientists share £820000 Nobel prize for discovery about body's daily rhythms

Who was Alfred Nobel the Swedish scientist behind the Nobel Prize

The three have isolated a gene, which controls a common daily biological rhythm, called as "Circadian rhythms" that adapts body working in the different phases during in whole day.

New York, N.Y. The 2017 Nobel Prize for Medicine has been awarded to three American scientists.

One hour in each cell, like plants, animals, even mushrooms, human body is running a watch in nearly every cell.

The scientists were able to delve deeper into the inner workings of how an internal, biological clock works in humans and organisms.

In the 1970s, another pair of researchers - Seymour Benzer and his student Ronald Konopka - published their findings of an unknown gene called "period" that controlled the circadian rhythm of fruit flies.

According to the Nobel Prize committee, they were awarded the prize for their scientific advancements towards understanding "how plants, animals and humans adapt their biological rhythm so that it is synchronised with the Earth's revolutions". Young discovered another "clock gene".

The work, done in fruit flies and dating back to 1984, identified genes and proteins that work together in people and other animals to synchronize internal activities throughout the day and night. In 2013, Rosbash, Hall, and Young shared the Shaw Prize in Life Sciences and Medicine for their circadian clock research.




The laureates went on to identify additional proteins required for the activation of the period gene, as well as for the mechanism that allows light to synchronise the clock. They can influence sleep, behavior, body temperature and the natural processes for breaking down food and making energy. Hall and Rosbash found that a protein encoded by the gene accumulated during the night and degraded during daytime.

Foster, who has long worked in the area of circadian rhythms, believes this research could provide the platform to help those with degenerative diseases as well as blindness and schizophrenia.

"Since the seminal discoveries by the three laureates", the Nobel Assembly said in its press release today, "circadian biology has developed into a vast and highly dynamic research field, with implications for our health and wellbeing".

Hall, of Brandeis University; Rosbash, also of Brandeis; and Young, of Rockefeller University, will share a prize of 9 million Swedish krona, or about $940,000.

Even our risk of a heart attack soars every morning as our body gets the engine running to start a new day. Hall and Rosbash showed that PER was getting into the nucleus but it was unclear how until 1994, when Young discovered the timeless gene, which was also essential for proper circadian rhythms.

If PER is more stable then the clock ticks more slowly, if it is less stable then it runs too fast.

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